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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|380 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||380 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||374|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXX dynasty, 1|
|- Pharaoh||Nectanebo I, 1|
|Ancient Greek era||100th Olympiad (victor)¹|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||庚子年 (Metal Rat)|
2317 or 2257
— to —
辛丑年 (Metal Ox)
2318 or 2258
|Coptic calendar||−663 – −662|
|Ethiopian calendar||−387 – −386|
|- Vikram Samvat||−323 – −322|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2721–2722|
|Iranian calendar||1001 BP – 1000 BP|
|Islamic calendar||1032 BH – 1031 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2291 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||163–164|
−253 or −634 or −1406
— to —
−252 or −633 or −1405
Year 380 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Tribunate of Poplicola, Poplicola, Maluginensis, Lanatus, Peticus, Mamercinus, Fidenas, Crassus and Mugillanus (or, less frequently, year 374 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 380 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Persia forces the Athenians to withdraw their general Chabrias from Egypt. Chabrias has been successfully supporting the Egyptian Pharaohs in maintaining their independence from the Persian Empire.
- The Egyptian Pharaoh Hakor dies and is succeeded by his son Nepherites II, but the latter is overthrown by Nectanebo I within the year, ending the Twenty-ninth dynasty of Egypt. Nectanabo (or more properly Nekhtnebef) becomes the first Pharaoh of the Thirtieth dynasty of Egypt.
- The Roman Republic holds elections for military tribunes with consular power . Military tribunes are as follows. Lucius Valerius (for the fifth time), Publius Valerius (third time), Gaius Sergius (third time), Licinius Menenius (second time), Publius Papirius and Servius Cornelius Maluginensis. War springs up with the Praenestines and they soon move to the territory of the Gabii (east of Rome ), as soon as they hear of civil disputes in Rome. In Rome the enrolment of troops cannot start, as the tribunes and the commons oppose it. The young men refuse to enroll their names and the tribunes will not allow those bound over to be taken away for military service. The Praenstines meanwhile see that Rome has no army in the field, so they proceed to destroy all the fields up to Rome and appear near the walls of Rome. Titus Quinctius Cincinnatus is made dictator, and he chooses Aulus Sempronius Atratinus as master of the horse. Quinctius defeats the enemy at Allia. Afterwards he captures eight towns subject to Praenste, stormes Velitrae, and accepts the surrender of Praenste. Quinctius holds a triumph in which he brings with him a statue of Jupiter from Praenste.
- What some historians call the Rich style in Greece comes to an end.
- Darius III, king of (Achaemenid) Persia (approximate date)
- Menaechmus, Greek mathematician and geometer (d. 320 BC)
- Pytheas, Greek explorer, who will explore northwestern Europe, including the British Isles (d. c. 310 BC) (approximate date)
- Agesipolis I, king of Sparta
- Philoxenus of Cythera, Greek dithyrambic poet (b. 435 BC)
- Hakor, king of the Twenty-ninth dynasty of Egypt
- Nefaarud II, son of Hakor and last king of the Twenty-ninth dynasty